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It is need of the hour that the intervention and rehabilitation process should be taken up in the most vulnerable districts like Dindigul, Madurai and other southern districts of Tamil Nadu.The districts like Dindigul and Madurai are the districts where more number of child laborer and Sumangali Scheme victims are reported. The child labour situation is becoming worst because of the charmless method of education, Denial of access to the schools closer by, girl students are not permitted to send school after the attainment of teenage years, parent's interest on making money leads the children to stop their education. They become child laborer of that particular area and district. The situation is further more worsening because of the pressure made by owners of the factory and the active broker's involvement in finding children for work. The child labors age between 13 to 16 are the more potential workers for the industries and later on eligible workers under all attractive, marriage assistance schemes of the spinning and weaving mills of Erode,Thirupur, Coimbatore and Karur Districts. The southern districts are the supply areas and the western districts are the source area for the Sumangali Scheme and schemes to attract poor young girls. There are several reasons for the girls become victim of the schemes. 

The reason for the situation is monsoon failure, hopeless employment opportunities, more number of school dropouts, and lack of awareness on the consequences of the attractive schemes like Sumangali Scheme, Thirumagal, Thirumana Thittam, Thaliku Thangam Thittam.

These all schemes are targeted poor young unmarried girls from the families of scheduled castes and schedule tribes communities. They even more concentrate on the two and more number of girl children's homes. It is easy for them to convince and packed them to the faraway spinning mills and cotton mills.

In this juncture SJDT made an attempt to take survey on the situation of child labor and Sumangali victims of the surrounding districts. It alarms the worst situation and victimization of young, poor, unmarried, scheduled caste girls by and large.

This book is trying to project the real situation and the role of SJDT in the process of mitigating the current situation and make out for children friendly nation in general. The book will consists of more success stories of SJDT rescued the children from hazardous situation and mainstreaming them in the regular schools, Selective cases on Sumangali victims, case studies and intervention processes of SJDT. It will be high time for us to ensure the intervention on this particular issue to save the children community from all forms of abuses and exploitations.

We hope that, the book will reflect upon the existing situation and address the issue in larger forums to ensure the child rights and protect the childhood as a whole to protect the human rights. This book will expose the noble cause of save the children and save the nation for better future.

Understanding of impacts of Sumangali Scheme.
The textile industry in Tamil Nadu has been exploiting drop out children, adolescent girls, and young women workers in the spinning and textile units, under what is called "Sumangali Scheme." There has been national as well as global focus on such practices for over a year, which led to discussion by stakeholders to understand the initiatives to bring relevant stakeholders together and develop a corrective action plan. Spinning mills range from small units employing around 100 workers, to very large mills with up to 6000 employees. Mills are capital intensive, investing in high end machinery and equipment, and working round the clock in 3 shifts to get their return on investment. As mills require large tracts of land, and property costs are very high close to towns, with newer ones even farther away, most of the workers in the mills are young women. It is a way to keep labor costs low and remain competitive. Mills with hostels are mainly located on the outskirts of towns in the districts of Coimbatore, Karur, Dindigul and Erode. In large towns like Tirupur and Coimbatore, instances of employment under the Sumangali Scheme are rare in comparison to other districts, as land is more expensive and there is little space for sprawling factories withhostels.

Characteristics of the Sumangali Scheme
The characteristics of the Sumangali Scheme are not uniform in textile mills and garment manufacturing factories. The Sumangali Scheme goes by various names in the South Indian textile industry tamp coolie system,' 'Thirumagal Thirumana Thittam', Kangani(Marriage)System, Sumangali Thittam, Marriage Assistance Scheme. This Scheme was implemented at Udumalpet in Coimbatore District in the later year of 1996. Later this scheme spread to Palani, Vedasandur, and Vadamadurai regions at Dindigul.

In the 1970s, spinning mills largely had mate workforce with permanent contracts and statutory women on short-term contracts. However, with more opportunities of work, the mills began to contract. They started hiring more women for certain periods, with wages paid monthly and in lump sum payments. Over the time, the textile industry especially spinning mills started hiring young women workers, on three-year contracts under the Sumangali Scheme, with the promise of a lump sum payment at the end of 3 years. 'Sumangali' in Tamil means “happily married woman” - an auspicious future that all parents wish for their young unmarried daughter/s. Marriages are entail in the form of dowry, though this practice is prohibited by law.

Parents especially from poor backgrounds, struggle to earn sufficient money to get their daughter/s married off with reasonable gifts at the time of marriage (often including dowry). Hence, the Sumangali Scheme provided an opportunity to employ young women workers who had few or almost no opportunities to find gainful employment in their respective villages, with the promise of a lump sum payment at the time of their marriage. The Sumangali scheme seemed to be a win-win situations for all parents who received a sizeable sum at the end of 3 years that could be used for the marriage of their daughter and the mills got workers, willing to work in the mills continuously as ' apprentices,' mostly for no/little statutory benefits and wages lower than their male counter parts.

Another reason why the Sumangali Scheme flourished in spinning mills is that the location of the mills is in semi urban or rural areas, where trained manpower is difficult to find and young women workers are considered to be a cheap resource. They are willing to work for lesser wager. Preference for women over men in the spinning sector is also attributed to women, because it is easier to manage them at work. They are more adept at handling repetitive tasks. Other reasons for the feminization of labor in spinning milt is that they also include women who are more willing to accept employment as casual or temporary workers at lower wages and in inferior conditions of work and their lesser likelihood of joining trade unions. With young women workers, often below 18 these aspects were magnified as these workers have little awareness regarding rights or collective bargaining and they are not considered as equipped to stand up for themselves on issues that affect them.

Under the Sumangali Scheme, young women workers are employed as apprentices for three year contracts for payment in the range of Rs.40, 000-80,000, payable at the end of the contract term. In addition, these workers are provided accommodations at a hostel facility and monthly stipends, paid to them or their parents, after deducting the hostel and meals expenses. The young women workers employed under Sumangali Thittam were mostly 18 or younger, since they were supposed to get married around the age of 20-21 and 3 years was seen as sufficient amount of time for families to earn some amount to meet marriage expenses for their daughters.

Sumangali Thittam and the status of young women
The Sumangali Thittam was started with good objectives in mind. However, after it became popular, each mill began interpreting It differently, leading in some cases to the exploitation of young women .Sumangali scheme has been criticized and highlighted as a means by which textile industry employs cheap labor by forcing young women workers to work as apprentices for long hours, in poor and unhygienic working and living conditions, forcing them to stay in company operated premises or hostels , and limiting their contact with the outside world , there by violating their fundamental rights and freedom of association. It is alleged that young women workers are employed usually for 2,3 or more year and are promised a lump sum amount in the range of Rs.25000 to be paid to them or to their parents for the marriage. These young women are alleged to be paid only as apprentice, below the minimum wages fixed for women, without statutory benefits such as Provident fund and Employees State Insurance, and to work for long hours.

It has also been highlighted in various studies that these young women's parents, who are poor, are persuaded by agents/brokers to send their daughters on the promise of lump sum payment. Parents, who have more than 2 children and are economically backward, are attracted by the Sumangali Scheme.

The name of the scheme is auspicious but the nature of the work and treatment during the working hours are inhuman and clear cut violation of human rights In the name of Sumangali Scheme or Thirumagal Thirumana Thittam (Thirumagal Marriage scheme) young women have been trafficked to for away paces of northern and western parts of Tamil Nadu. Sometimes the young women are forcefully shifted to northern states like Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Even some more new attractive names have been given to the same scheme, It is nothing but Camp coolie scheme. 

The young girls from the southern districts of Tamil Nadu mainly illiterate, unmarried, economically poor, dropout from schools are the target for the scheme. They have been convinced by the brokers and they brain wash the entire family. Those selected young girls are moving to the cotton and spinning mills at Thirupur, Coimbatore, Erode, and Dindigul districts of Tamil Nadu. The camp coolie organizers given a lot of false assurances to the young girls like a lump sum of Rupees forty thousand at the completion of third year. If they continue to work for five years they will get fifty thousand cash money and many more marriage gifts will be provided by the management of the industry. The false promises are given by agents only and not by cotton and spinning participate the selection process. The young girls or the family of them never know the owners of the milt or the name of the mill, where they are going to work. Without knowing any facts the young girls are accepting the false offer promised by the agents or brokers of the mills.

The poor illiterate, unmarried young girls sometimes girl children too below the age of eighteen believe the camp coolly agents' honey coated words. The young girls are moved to the spinning milt sites with a lot of dreams about their marriage and the promises made by the management of the mills. They will reach the milt with all the expectations, what is the reality now? At the working place there is a totally different, unexpected and unbelievable atmosphere to work or stay. The young girls are living in the difficult circumstances and they cannot express their feelings.

The following points reveal the nature of exploitation by the mil/s under the Sumangali Scheme.

* Never get the status of permanent worker in the industry.

* They are not eligible to get benefits under Labour laws.

* The working hours are extended up to 15 hours per day with compulsion.
* The accident victims never get their compensation.

* Sufficient holiday facilities are not provided to the workers.

* No extra payment or wages for the overtime work

* Safety measures not followed and safety equipments are not provided to the workers.

* The young girls are victimized by the way of physical, mental and sexual abuses during the working hours.

* Even after the maturity of the contract term, the mills never give the agree cash benefits to the worker.

* Number of Sumangali Scheme worker go back home without any benefits but made them tired      repeatedly call them back for settlement.

* The young girls are staying in the dormitory type accommodation without any basic facilities.

* The workers are stayed back in the premises of the industry which make them more tired 
  and give more stress on their mind because any time they may call them for overtime work.

* The management never follows workers safety measures and Labour Welfare Law and Rules to      protest the workers.

* If the worker avails any holidays, they have to compensate the leave the days work 
  without extra payment.

From the woeful consequences the victims of the Sumangali Scheme can never be recovered even after they return to their homes .It will never allow them to lead a normal life. In most of the cases, the victim girls face problems in monthly menstrual cycle and in child birth. Few young girls committed suicide because of the level of stress in tolerabl by themselves.

Status of working children in Tamil Nadu, Preamble of educational situation:
It is unanimously accepted by many that schooling has innumerable benefits for the child. But the irony of the fact is that even after 67 years of independence, a vast majority of lndian children are deprived of these benefits. The statistics shows that 60% of children from rural areas in the age group 6-14 years do not enroll themselves in schools, and dropout rate at the elementary level is found as high as 60 % (Sixth All India Education Survey).

The reasons for high dropouts in particular are diverse ranging from high cost of education, inadequate educational facilities, poverty, familial duties and structural factors. However, dropout is not a distinct event, but rather a process of events, situations and contexts which work together to produce dropouts. Thus in order to unravel the factors and the underlying processes of the phenomenon of dropout in relation to those at the risk of dropping out, "certain selected in-depth case studies of dropouts" and "children at risk" have been done.

Existing research has found that parental involvement in schooling is one of the most important indicators of a Childs success of schooling. Most of the selected cases of dropouts, parents were either least concerned or gave less value to their children's education. Risk factors begin to add up even before students are enrolled a school are poverty, low educational level of parents, the weak family structure, pattern of schooling of siblings, and lack of pre-school experiences. Family background and domestic problems create an environment which negatively affects the value of education. Further, students could drop out as a result of a multitude of school factors such as uncongenial atmosphere, poor comprehension, absenteeism, attitude and behavior of the teachers, and failure or repetition in the same grade, etc.

The in-depth case study of these selected samples not only indicate the magnitude of the problem in given state but also provides a clear understanding of the phenomenon of dropouts which is not homogeneity its nature, but it differs from case to case, from situation to situation. Each story is different from one to another Thus, attempts have been made by linking these small scale in-depth studies to the bigger quantitative picture which would definitely helpful in the understanding of the processes of exclusion in order to get clear knowledge about how same children become excluded from school, whilst others remain enrolled and attending within particular contexts.

Child labour is an urgent issue of public and political concern both at local and national level. The me treats the issue of the child labour merely as news for making sensational stores .It is urgent and needed that enforcement agencies in identifying the grey areas which employ children i.e, Cotton seeds processing industry plastic bead industry and beedies rolling industries. It is necessary to take preventive and rehabilitative measures on child labour. The incidents of involving deaths of children at work in hazardous occupations, which strictly prohibit the employment of children, adolescent girls in their teen age, reflects total failure on the par enforcement agencies in executing legal provisions of the child labour Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986.

Despite numerous initiatives taken up by the governments of India and Tamil Nadu, and Ministry of labour, child labour continues to be a niggling issue. At present there are approximately 15 million children still working as bonded laborers .The child labour situation is worst in Tamil Nadu because the camp collie system is adopted and trafficked. The adolescent girls have been exploited physically, mentally, and sometimes sexually to, leads to the health status of the children who have been affected very much in all farms abuses. Due to illiteracy the parents and children, they are vulnerable to being cheated and exploited by the agents /brokers at e\ stage of sign in the contract with the industries.

The child workers are affected very much by several ailments normally like joint pains, eye barn backache, headache, cold and cough. The young girls are also prove to several other dreadful diseases persistent burning of eyes, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, occupational dermatitis, bronchitis, tuberculosis emphysema due to the cotton dust and longer hours of working in fixed postures.

The extreme exploitation, torture and recklessness meted out by the employers and complacency among the law enforcement agencies also result in gruesome to child Iaborer in the industries. The gravity of situation has drawn attention of the government and the policy makers.

Orphaned by our Money Mongering Educational Institutions:
Industries Benefit Through Child Labor

India has 43. S lakh child workers in the age group of S to 14 years of age, according to the 2011 census. As per 2001 census we had 1.3 crore. Ten year of hard labor has brought down child labor to 50%. But thee, the present number is still alarming. SJDT over the last 20years have put in hard work to reduce the child labor in two cities namely Dindigul and Madurai. Enclosed are the details on our achievements. Over and above our achievements what we realize is still lots of children are pushed in to child labor market due to various reasons. Some of the reasons frequently cited are as follows:

* Poor income of the bread winner (father).
* Economic poverty of the families.
* Sudden demise of the bread winner.
* The Drinking and other bad habits of the father.
* Irresponsible attitude of the earning members.
* The second marriage of the father (or) mother due to family problems lead to dropout.
* Habitual bad habits of the male children.
* Wrong guidance and influence of the friendship.
* Parents refusing to send the female children after puberty — Cultural constraints.
* Migration of the parents to other districts ( or) state in search of jobs/employment.
* Caste - based Discrimination in the schools ( Inferiority complex)
* Family responsibilities such as looking after younger brother (or) sister where both
  father and mother work as coolies.
* Prevalence of various abuses in the school.
* Lack of attention and supervision of the parents and misguidance by elders.
* The Social set up in some of the villages restrict the children entering higher studies
  particularly the female children.
* Poor performance of the children in their studies.
* Low self-esteem and low aspirations.

In Dindigul we have found that some of the industries have the children to work on school holidays advising the parents that the salary they earn can be useful for their school fees and other expenses. But the money flow comes to the family and they taste a better life. Then, the employers entice the children to drop from the school to continue the work.

This shocking revelation makes any civilized person cringe in share for it expires the fall one of our system which protects children and promise good education. The child exploiters know hundred and one ways to entice children but our social security system has no teeth. The poor agricultural families are pushed in to severe survival struggle by vagaries of nature, fainted of monsoon, poor prices for their produces, seasonal nature of employment etc. But these families also have dreams of the good education for their children for they strongly believe that good education wilt deliver them from the clutches of poverty. But this very legitimate dream of these poor parents is being used by the employers as a entry point for exploiting the children. On the one hand exploitative posh schools that entice the parents and children promising of quality education, on the other hand the child labor employers entice them on school holidays to provide money that can be used to access these schools. The children and parents fait prey but subsequently yield to be a child laborer. What actually happening is the abominable act of stifling the future generations of people in a poverty stricken rural aggression society.

Exploitation of Child labor

* We have come across hundreds of child laborers in our work with them.
* The kind of exploitation they undergo are most appealing and painful.
* In Dindigul District most of the female children are doing work in textile mills under Sumangali Thittam. They face many problems and abuses in their    career.
* We in our program reach out these children and their families as well as their communities and try to bring awareness of the cribs and perils of child      labor and tryre school them.

These children suffer the following abuses:
1. Physical abuses including torture, beating physical injuries stunted growth.
2. Mental abuses such as intimidation Jack of education, prevention from free thinking, subservient mental make up.
3. The children are abused sexually especially the girl children and also Physical and sexual abuse/abortion is experienced by the female workers, due     to this they have been affected mentally but not reported properly.
4. The children also face the following work related health hazards.

* Mill workers are affected by Asthma and lungs connected problems.
* Due to the heat produced in the factory or mill, they are affected by skin disease, allergy and eye related problems.
* Kidney stone problems, irregular menstrual cycle problem is there among the female workers.
* Due to the high volume and continuous sound they are facing hearing problem.
* Anemic problem is there.
* Lack of medical assistance. Deduction in salary for the leaves, taken as per the rules which affects the mind and family.
* Continuous work, no leave, two day salary deduction for one day leave, commission to the brokers etc.
* From the worker's side, additional shift, no medical facility, no sanitation, no hygienic food.
* No legal protection/ No human rights/ No labour law. Child abuse and neglected occurs in a range of situations for a range of reasons. Children are        rarely subject to one form of abuse at a time. Children can experience a range of psychological,  emotional and social problems related to childhood      abuse. SJDT is creating awareness among the children and parents about the following abuses practically (or) commonly occuring in the community      and teach them how to be cautious about such a situations during the gatherings and house visits.
* Emotional Abuses
* Neglect
* Physical Abuse
* Sexual Abuse

Intervention by SJDT
In Dindigul District, the organization was working for street children and working children. They found the children who were working in the textile industry and they also identified unhealthy children in unsafe working environment. Moreover more than 3000 adolescent girls, drop out children and young women workers from poor families in 120 villages in four blocks were working in 220 textile industries functioning in urban and semi urban areas.

The companies do not follow labour rights and human rights. So the employees (adolescent girls) are not able to get any benefits as per prescribed by labour rights and human rights act. In this juncture we entered and came to know the problems faced by the working women under Sumangali Scheme around Dindigul District. This is happening not only in Dindigul but it is experienced all over the country. Now a days it is a country wide problem which is to be taken care of.

The following given problems are being faced by the girls.
The most tedious condition of work in the garment factories and textile mills is the long working hours. On an average, a garment worker has to work for more than 12 hours a day. Mandatory overtime and less payment for overtime work is another issue which needs attention. Workers have to work for both day and night. There is no job security and they do not get any leave although according to the law\they deserve it. They face acute problem with regard to their reproductive health issue and diseases due to hazardous working conditions. Moreover the following practices are being executed under the Sumangali Scheme.

Employment contract
No written contract between employers and employees in most cases.

Wages and deductions.
Workers are employed and retained as apprentices and are paid mostly stipends rather than regular wages with deductions taken out for amenities. High deductions reduce monthly payment. The monthly payment comes out to be less than stipend as per minimum wages in the spinning milt sector.

Social security benefits
Employee Provident Fund and Employee State Insurance benefits are not provided.

Health and safety
No training is provided to workers. Hence, very low awareness of health and safety issues.

Instances of accidents are common.

Working hours
Normal shift up to 12 hours with additional 4 hours mostiy not treated as overtime. Some time the working hours extend up to 15 hours with overtime of 2-3 hours.

Non discrimination - young women are mostly employed and paid less than what men are paid for same work. The employment is mainly of young women workers.

Harassment or abuse - Verbal abuse is common. Physical abuse is not common but there are instances of it. Sexual abuse is also reported by workers.

Child labour
Young women workers are being employed. Many of them look under aged. They are under 16 year of age. However their employment is on the basis of health certificates which mention their age as above 16 but they look much Youngers.

Forced labours
The employment is for a number of years (1,2,3) and there are instances of wages not being paid if they stipulated period is not completed. Wages are promised as lump sum paid at the end of a period. So workers are in a way forced to complete that period to get lump sum wages. There are examples of extension of service many months to make up for leave taken during 3 year periods. Compulsory over time, compulsory late night shifts excessive working hours other aspects which suggest the scheme has aspects of forced labor. Since, the girls facing above mentioned problems, they have been getting RTI infection, anemia, mental stress and they are also abused by men who are working as supervisors, technicians and others.

The objective of the community outreach and rehabilitation programme is to eliminate exploitative practices in the textile and garment industries by enabling the current, potential, and former women workers of textile and garment industries in selected 'sender' or 'recruitment' communities irrespective of carte and religion to help themselves through education on workers' rights.

Key strategy and activities of community outreach programmes:
* The Panchyat Raj System and the elected leaders of the respective village should act as  activists to reduce the child labour situation at the village        level.
* Periodical review and monitoring is essential to maintain the childlabour free society
* Government line departments and other stakeholders should have a consistent vigil and take voluntary efforts to assess the situation regularly.
* The Gram panchayat should prepare a childlabour elimination and rehabilitation plan and display in the main places of the village
* Encourage the civil society organization and child volunteers to provide with incentives for identification and mainstreaming of the children.
* The federation of self - help groups both men and women at block level to address the issue of childlabour and adolescent girl workers at block level.
* The convergence of the line department on common agenda and action plan implement in effective way.
* Periodical assessment on the status of child dropout and migration to other part of the district or state.
* One effective team should do follow up on the main streamed children and closer follow up and motivate to the potential drop out children.
* Regular Parents teachers meeting at school level and parents( both father and mother)level meeting at community level needs to be organized.
* Capacity building training to the project staff with special focus to child rights.
* Campaign on anti childlabour, child protection, child rights needs to be organized at village level and feeder blocks for Sumangali Scheme.
* Mapping the existing facilities and/or linking beneficiaries to local organization/ service providers
* Conducting awareness raising activities in communities on workers' rights and entitlements, workplace conditions, accommodation facilities, etc.
* Networking with existing legal support services including government agencies, TU’s and NGO’s.
* Ensuring active and meaningful involvement of local authorities such as Panchayat leaders, community leaders, influencers, school teachers, and SHG    leaders.
* Streamlining recruitment practices through development of Standard Recruitment Guide/packages and training and awareness building on standard      recruitment guide for agents.

Intervention programmes
In spite of the regular house visits, awareness programme on education, SJDT has also the following intervention to reduce dropout rates and to create interest among parents and children towards education. The intervention activities are:
* House visits.
* School visits.
* Children development committee.
* Working children club meeting.
* Cluster wise parents meeting.
* Local gathering.
* Skill training among children.
* School awareness programme.
* Street play.
* Conducting medical camps.

Through the above intervention programme the following topics such as importance of education, sanitation and health education, discipline, child rights, right to education, significance of savings, etc are discussed among the target communities.

Achievement of SJDT the years between 2008 and 2014
What we have done! We have achieved...the following
* 2064 Working children were identified. Among them 855 children were counseled and re schooled and then regular follow up was carried out by the      project team.
* 5263 House visits were done to make awareness of education to the children and parents
* 113 School visits were done to follow up the children's regular attendance to stop the Drop outs.
* 5263 House eisits were done to make awareness of education to the children and parents
* 113 School visits were done to follow up the children's regular attendance to stop the drop outs
* 243 Working children club meeting were conducted and discussed about the importance of education ,health, child rights, discipline, nutritious food        and obedience
* 42 Child Development Committee (CDC) meeting were conducted and discussed about child marriage, Sumangali scheme, hazardous working              situation, child rights, child abusel protection, importance of education and skill training programme.
* 534 Parents meetings were conducted to create the awareness about education, hazardous working environment, Sumangali Scheme, causes of drag    addictions among the family members inclusive of children.
* 99 Gathering were conducted regarding the education for working and re -school children and we have offered opportunity to exhibit their talents          through activities like art, craftwork, sports and games competition, singing and dancing and mono act and prizes were also given to the winners.
* 55 Street plays were performed in our working villages to bring the awareness of education and child rights to the public.
* 21 School awareness meeting were conducted in the various schools to motivate the students to bring bright future and educate them to become         good citizen.
* 6 Rallies were organized and emphasized child rights to education among the public in city level.
* 24 Medical camps were conducted for working children and re - school children and ensures the health and follow up treatment.

Way Forward
In the vicinity of child labour and Sumangali Scheme victims in our society need to be intervened and rehabilitating them is the prime objective of SJDT Districts like Dindigul the southern part of Tamil Nadu is the source area for traficking as adolescent girls to traffic to other parts of the District and the state. In this juncture, SJDT has taken up the noble task of ensuring the child's rights and protecting the adolescent girls from the iron clutches of the spinning and weaving mills all around. The tough task of handling the issue in a sensible manner with viable solution has reached its miles.

The dark life of children particularly are targeted by the commercial minded owners of the industries have come to an end and the dawn has come to their life. It was proved and witnessed by various case studies and success stories. The impact may not be much visible now, but it is certain that, the future educated generation is ensured by various activities conducted by the committed and dedicated staff members of SJDT. Still it is a long way to go to achieve the goals and objectives of child labour free society.

Despite tireless efforts, the project staff found it very difficult to approach the child labour reportedly working in the spinning mills in the district. The child workers and their family do not like to come out of the system due to their poor economic conditions. Their family do not like losing their regular assured income - the absence of which would force them to become economically more vulnerable.

Therefore, it becomes very difficult for us to get them relieved off from the child labour at this stage. It is now realized that more and more efforts are required to prevent those children from vulnerable families from becoming drop-outs and child labourer. Therefore, the project team instead of working with child labour to ametiorate their living conditions proposes to identify the vulnerable families and the children for taking up appropriate measures to prevent the children from becoming child labour. That is rather than identifying and helping them after they have become child labour, it is now proposed to make preventing measures through early identification of vulnerable families and preventing them from becoming prey to the child labour system. SJDT is aiming for the purpose. It is possible only through the convergence of line departments and implementation of multidimensional approach and activities. It is possible now working with SJDT.

ACHIEVEMENT OF SJDT